Preventing Firefighter Disorientation: Enclosed Structure



In his first book, William Mora, a 30-year fire service veteran and firefighter safety advocate, discusses how to prevent traumatic structural firefighter fatalities. Firefighter disorientation can be defined as “the loss of direction due to the lack of vision in a structure fire.” To combat this problem, Mora outlines a multipronged approach to effectively address the components that contribute to disorientation and structural firefighter fatalities. This text includes many case studies and guidelines for size-up factors and is an important resource for all firefighters.


  • Preface
  • Introduction
  • The structural firefighter fatality problem
  • Terms, risk, and assumptions
  • Types of enclosed structures
  • Types of obscured visibility and types of firefighter disorientation
  • Similarities in disorientation fires
  • The firefighter disorientation sequence
  • Initial size-up factors
  • Avoiding life-threatening hazards
  • Hose evolutions and fireground realities
  • Hazards of construction
  • Coordinated ventilation
  • Enclosed structure tactics and guidelines
  • Firefighter disorientation case reviews: Considering enclosed structure tactics
  • Summary and conclusion
  • Appendix A Unprotected enclosed structures: A global problem
  • Glossary
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